I falsi ebrei

La mitologia del moderno Israele

La mitologia del moderno Israele
(Foto di Leopoldo Salmaso)

di Tariq Ali 1

Questo articolo è la trascrizione da una conferenza tenuta presso la Rothko Chapel

 

“…

Al fine di creare un mito per giustificare l’esistenza dello stato di Israele, i leader sionisti avevano due argomenti:
– uno, che queste erano terre bibliche storicamente appartenenti al popolo ebraico;
– e in secondo luogo, queste terre erano concentrate in quella che oggi è la Palestina.

Quindi l’occupazione della Palestina e la creazione di Israele in questo particolare territorio era assolutamente essenziale.

Ora, sapete, molti di noi hanno confutato la loro tesi, e anche loro confutano lenostre, ma… non è questo il punto.

Quello che interessa qui è che uno storico ebreo molto illustre, o dovrei dire uno storico israeliano, perché lui preferisce essere definito storico israeliano, Shlomo Sand dell’Università di Tel Aviv, ha scritto un libro molto interessante che ha scatenato una tempesta. Il suo libro, che è stato scritto inizialmente in ebraico, è diventato un best-seller in Israele, ha travolto il paese come un uragano. Ci volle un po’ di tempo prima che venisse pubblicato in Occidente, ma alla fine lo fu, prima in Francia e poi in Gran Bretagna e negli Stati Uniti. Ha suscitato un grande dibattito ed è stato molto interessante il fatto che Shlomo Sand ha essenzialmente decostruito tutti i miti del sionismo, con molta calma. Ha detto: “Guardate, non dovremmo usare questi miti per giustificare l’esistenza di Israele”.

Israele è qui per restare. Penso che tutti i cittadini di Israele, siano essi ebrei o palestinesi, arabi, cristiani, musulmani, dovrebbero avere gli stessi diritti. E dovremmo bloccare la legge per cui, se sei ebreo, puoi tornare in questa terra. È pazzesco, ha detto, perché dovremmo farlo ancora? Ma per far valere questo argomento egli ha fatto davvero molto lavoro storico e antropologico, e ha sostenuto che, dopo la distruzione del tempio nel 70 d.C., contrariamente alla mitologia non ci sono state espulsioni di ebrei dalla regione. (Shlomo) ha giustamente sottolineato che i romani non avevano l’abitudine di espellere le popolazioni dalle terre che avevano conquistato, perché erano molto intelligenti e avevano bisogno di coltivatori e persone che lavoravano in quelle terre, perché le legioni romane non lo facevano.

E lui (Shlomo) ha detto che non solo non c’erano espulsioni, ma, allo stesso tempo, c’erano sltre comunità ebraiche che contavano 4 milioni di persone, cioè un numero enorme per quei tempi, in Persia, Egitto, Asia Minore e altrove, che erano e sono rimaste fuori (dalla Palestina).

Egli ha anche sostenuto che l’idea che la fede ebraica, dopo la separazione da essa del movimento riformatore conosciuto come cristianesimo, non credesse nel proselitismo è del tutto falsa: ne fecero di proselitismo, molte persone si convertirono; alcuni si convertirono spontaneamente, mentre gli ebrei askenazisti in particolare nacquero dalle conversioni di massa ai margini del Mar Caspio, tra il VII e il X secolo, fra i Kazari, che finalmente adottarono l’ebraismo e si convertirono all’ebraismo in massa (per decreto regale -NdT), e questi sono gli ebrei ashkenazisti che popolarono l’Europa, e i ghetti d’Europa, e che soffrirono sotto l’Olocausto e tutto il resto.

Queste sono le persone che discendono dai Kazari. Loro in particolare, come dice Shlomo, costituivano la maggior parte del movimento sionista, non avevano assolutamente alcun legame con le terre arabe. Poi lui si è spinto oltre e ha detto: se la Palestina non è l’unica patria ancestrale degli ebrei, che cosa è successo a tutti gli ebrei in questi paesi? E qui trova una spiegazione devastante: dice che in larga maggioranza si sono convertiti all’Islam. Si sono convertiti all’Islam, la maggior parte di loro, non tutti, come molti altri popoli di quella regione all’epoca.

E dice che i palestinesi che abbiamo espulso e oppresso sono i diretti discendenti degli ebrei che un tempo vivevano, vivevano realmente in questa terra. È un libro notevole, e ha creato un enorme dibattito, e il dibattito, dice, non è in Israele. Ed è interessante questo: la maggior parte degli storici israeliani accettano che questa ricostruzione storica è accurata, ma dicono che la loro risposta alla scienza è: “beh, sai, ogni nazione crea la propria mitologia, quindi qual è il grande problema?”. Anche questo è vero, tra l’altro, ma questa mitologia è molto potente, e molto efficace perché questa mitologia è stata diffusa e opera ancora.

Voglio dire, a nessuno importerebbe la mitologia se tutto fosse stato sistemato e se fosse stato raggiunto un accordo, ma poiché non lo è stato, diventa una forza dirompente. E lo stesso Shlomo Sand non è affatto una figura radicale. Dice: “io non sono un sionista hardcore ma credo in Israele, però penso che tutti i cittadini dovrebbero avere gli stessi diritti e non si può dire ai palestinesi: “non tornate in terre che vi sono state portate via”, e intanto continuare a dire agli ebrei, ovunque si trovino in qualsiasi parte del mondo: “potete tornare quando volete”. E ha detto che è per questo che lui ha scritto il libro: per lottare per l’uguaglianza. E i grandi attacchi al libro sono arrivati dalla diaspora. Voglio dire che il New York Times ne ha fatto una grande, grande recensione, il che ha creato un’enorme controversia. E in Francia e in Gran Bretagna non ci sono state polemiche, nel complesso si è accettato che ciò che lui sosteneva fosse vero. Intendo dire che tutti gli storici che hanno recensito il libro hanno detto che è accurato, sapete, non si può estrometterlo dalla storia, perché noi accettiamo le sue tesi. Ma la diaspora era arrabbiata anche solo per il fatto che fossero state esposte, così Sand rispose in modo molto acuto: “Beh, se siete così ansiosi di dire che ho torto e che quello che sto facendo danneggia Israele, perché non mettete i vostri soldi dove avete messo la bocca, e lasciate la diaspora e venite a stabilirvi in Israele?

Ha detto: “Se siete così appassionati per Israele, perché non venite a vivere qui? Noi viviamo qui e sappiamo come viviamo”. E ha detto ancora: “non viviamo bene, né noi né i non ebrei di quella parte del mondo, ed è per questo che ho scritto il mio libro”.

Ora, Shlomo è un tipo molto coraggioso, tra l’altro non è l’unico: molti storici israeliani hanno scritto libri di questo tipo, ma hanno avuto qualche impatto sui governanti del mondo o sui governanti di Israele?

E qui penso che la risposta sia no.

Una delle cose interessanti che Shlomo Sand cita nel suo libro è una dichiarazione di David ben Gurion, uno dei padri fondatori di Israele, nel 1918, dove ben Gurion scrive: “Sapete, la gente chiede cosa è successo agli ebrei che vivevano in questa regione. Erano fedeli alla terra e per rimanere in questa terra, dice, la maggior parte degli ebrei sono diventati musulmani”. Così lui lo sapeva, e loro lo sapevano, i capi di Israele, che questa mitologia che si stava creando sulla base delle citazioni dell’Antico Testamento era in gran parte mitologia, non basata su alcuna realtà storica.

Ecco quindi un esempio di abuso della storia, un abuso che scatena un dibattito enorme e molto creativo, ma naturalmente i soli dibattiti e i libri, anche se forti e potenti come quello scritto da questo storico israeliano, non influenzano le menti dei politici o dei governanti perché alla fine non governano sulla base dei miti. I miti servono per tenere le persone in riga, essi governano per altri motivi: per mantenersi al potere, per mantenere il controllo della società così com’è, e questo non vale solo per Israele, si applica alla maggior parte dei governanti delle diverse parti del mondo, del mondo di oggi.

…“.

 

1 Tariq Ali è uno scrittore, giornalista, storico, regista, attivista politico e intellettuale pubblico. E’ membro del comitato editoriale della New Left Review e di Sin Permiso, e contribuisce a The Guardian, CounterPunch e alla London Review of Books. Insegna Filosofia Politica ed Economica all’Exeter College, Oxford.

È autore di diversi libri, tra cui ‘Pakistan: regime militare o potere al popolo (1970); ‘Il Pakistan può sopravvivere? Morte di uno Stato’ (1983); ‘Scontro di fondamentalismi: crociate, jihad e modernità’ (2002); ‘Bush a Babilonia’ (2003); ‘Conversazioni con Edward Said’ (2005); ‘Pirati dei Caraibi: Asse della speranza’ (2006); ‘Un banchiere per tutte le stagioni’ (2007); ‘Il duello’ (2008); ‘La sindrome di Obama’ (2010); e ‘Il centro estremo: Un avvertimento’ (2015).

 

Traduzione dall’inglese di Leopoldo Salmaso


The Mythology of Modern Israel

The Mythology of Modern Israel
(Image by Flickr, modified)

by Tariq Ali1

This article is a transcription extracted from a conference at Rothko Chapel.

 

“…
In order to create a myth to justify the existence of the state (Israel), the Zionist leaders of Israel had two arguments:
– one, that these were biblical lands historically belonging to the Jewish people;
– and secondly, these lands were concentrated in what is now Palestine.

Therefore the occupation of Palestine and the creation of Israel in this particular territory was absolutely essential.

Now, you know, many of us argued against, and they would say they argue too, but… we don’t matter.
What is interesting now is that a very distinguished Jewish historian, or I should say an Israeli historian because that is: he prefers being referred to as an Israeli historian, Shlomo Sand at the University of Tel Aviv, wrote a very interesting book which created a storm. And his book, which was written initially in Hebrew, became a best-seller in Israel, just took the country by storm. It took some time before it was published in the West but it finally was, first in France and then in Britain and the United States. It created a big debate and what was very interesting was that Shlomo Sand essentially deconstructed all the myths of Zionism, quite calmly, and he said: “look, we shouldn’t use these myths to justify the existence of Israel”.
Israel is here to stay. I think all the citizens of Israel, whether they’re Jews or Palestinians, Arabs, Christians, Muslims, should have the same rights. And we should stop the right that, if you’re a Jew, you can come back to this land. It’s crazy, he said, why should we do this anymore? But in order to put this argument forward he really did a lot of historical and anthropological work, and he argued that, after the destruction of the temple in AD 70, contrary to mythology there were no expulsions of Jews from the region. He pointed out correctly that the Romans were not in the habit of expelling populations from lands that they conquered, because they were very intelligent and they needed cultivators and people working the areas, because the Roman legions didn’t do that.

And he (Shlomo) said not only were there no expulsions but, at the same time, there were Jewish communities numbering 4 million people, which is a huge amount for those times, in Persia, Egypt, Asia Minor and elsewhere, who stayed out.

And he then argued that the notion that the Jewish faith, after the separation of the reform movement known as Christianity from it, didn’t believe in proselytization is totally false: they did (proselitism), many people were converted; some converted themselves, and the Ashkenazi Jews in particular grew out of the mass conversions on the edge of the Caspian Sea, between the seventh and tenth centuries, off the khazars, who finally adopted Hebrew and converted to Judaism wholesale, and these are the Ashkenazi Jews who peopled Europe, and the ghettos of Europe, and who suffered under the Holocaust and all that.

These are those people descending from the khazars so he (Shlomo) said they in particular, who formed the bulk of the Zionist movement, had absolutely no connection with the Arab lands at all. Then he went even further so he said: if Palestine is not the unique ancestral homeland of the Jews, what happened to all the Jews in these countries? And here he comes up with a devastating explanation: he says by and large in their majority they converted to Islam, they converted to Islam, most of them not all of them, as many other people did in that region at the time.

And he says that the Palestinians whom we have been expelling and oppressing are the direct descendants of the Jews who used to live, actually live in this land. It’s a remarkable book, and it has created a huge debate, and the debate, he says, is not in Israel. And it’s interesting this: most Israeli historians accept that this is accurate, but they say their response to science is to say: well, you know, every nation creates its own mythology so what’s the big deal? But you know this is also true, by the way, but this mythology is very potent, and very powerful because this thing that is unleashed is still going on.

I mean, no one would mind the mythology if everything had been settled and some agreement had been reached, but because it hasn’t, it becomes a very disruptive force. And Shlomo Sand himself is by no means a radical figure. He says: I’m not a hardcore Zionist but I believe in Israel, except that I think all citizens should have equal rights and you can’t say to the Palestinians: “don’t come back to lands that were taken away from you”, as long as you keep saying to Jews, wherever they may be in whichever part of the world: “you can come back whenever you want”. And he said that’s why he wrote the book: to fight for equality. And the big attacks on the book have come from the Diaspora. I mean the New York Times ran a big, big review of it, which created a huge controversy. And in France and in Britain there was no controversy at all, by and large it was accepted that what he argued was true. I mean all the historians who reviewed the book said it’s accurate, you know, you can’t sort of catch him out of history, because we accept this. But the Diaspora was angry that this had even been said, to which Sand replied very very sharply: “well, if you’re so keen to say that I’m wrong and what I’m doing is harming Israel, why don’t you put your money where your mouth is, and leave the diaspora and come and settle in Israel?”.

He said: “if you’re that keen on the country, why don’t you come and live here, we live here and we know how we live”. And he said that: “how we live is not good, either for us or for the non-jews in that part of the world, and that is why I’ve written my book”.

Now, he’s a very courageous guy, by the way he’s not the only one: many Israeli historians have written books of this sort but do they have any impact on the rulers of the world or the rulers of Israel?
And here I think the answer is no.

And one of the interesting thing Shlomo Sand quotes in his book is a statement from David ben Gurion, one of the founding fathers of Israel, in 1918, where ben Gurion writes: “you know, people ask what happened to the Jews who lived in this region. They were loyal to the land and in order to stay in this land, he says, most of the Jews became Muslims”. So he knew it, and they knew it, the leaders of Israel, that this mythology that was being created on the basis of quotations from the Old Testament was largely mythology, not based on any historical reality at all.

So here you have an example of history being abused, but at the same time the abuse triggering off a huge and very creative debate, but of course debates alone and books, even as strong and powerful as the one written by this Israeli historian, do not sway the minds of politicians or rulers because ultimately they do not rule on the basis of the myths. The myths are to keep people in line, they rule for other reasons: to keep themselves in power, to keep control of the society as it is, and this doesn’t just apply to Israel, it applies to most of the rulers of different parts of the world, of the world today.
…”

Tariq Ali is a BritishPakistani writer, journalist, historian, filmmaker, political activist, and public intellectual. He is a member of the editorial committee of the New Left Review and Sin Permiso, and contributes to The Guardian, CounterPunch, and theLondon Review of Books. He reads PPE at Exeter College, Oxford.
He is the author of several books, including Pakistan: Military Rule or People’s Power (1970), Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State (1983), Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity (2002), Bush in Babylon (2003), Conversations with Edward Said (2005), Pirates Of The Caribbean: Axis Of Hope (2006), A Banker for All Seasons (2007), The Duel (2008), The Obama Syndrome (2010) and The Extreme Centre: A Warning (2015).


La mitología de Israel moderno

La mitología de Israel moderno
(Imagen de Flickr, modificado)

Por Tariq Ali[1]

Este artículo es una transcripción extraída de una conferencia en la Capilla Rothko.

“…

Para crear un mito que justificara la existencia del Estado (Israel), los líderes sionistas de Israel tenían dos argumentos:

– uno, que estas eran tierras bíblicas que pertenecían históricamente al pueblo judío;

– y, en segundo lugar, estas tierras estaban concentradas en lo que ahora es Palestina.

Por lo tanto, la ocupación de Palestina y la creación de Israel en este territorio en particular eran absolutamente esenciales.

Ahora, ustedes saben, muchos de nosotros discutimos en contra, y ellos dirían que ellos también lo hacen, pero… no nos importa.

Lo que es interesante ahora es que un historiador judío muy distinguido, o debería decir un historiador israelí, porque eso es: prefiere que se le llame historiador israelí, Shlomo Sand, de la Universidad de Tel Aviv, escribió un libro muy interesante que creó una tormenta. Y su libro, que fue escrito inicialmente en hebreo, se convirtió en un best-seller en Israel, simplemente tomó el país por asalto. Pasó algún tiempo antes de que se publicara en Occidente, pero finalmente lo fue, primero en Francia y luego en Gran Bretaña y los Estados Unidos. Creó un gran debate y lo que fue muy interesante fue que Shlomo Sand esencialmente deconstruyó todos los mitos del sionismo, con bastante calma, y dijo: “Mira, no deberíamos usar estos mitos para justificar la existencia de Israel”.

Israel está aquí para quedarse. Creo que todos los ciudadanos de Israel, ya sean judíos o palestinos, árabes, cristianos, musulmanes, deberían tener los mismos derechos. Y debemos detener el derecho de que, si eres judío, puedes volver a esta tierra. Es una locura, dijo, ¿por qué deberíamos seguir haciendo esto? Pero para poder presentar este argumento, él realmente hizo mucho trabajo histórico y antropológico, y argumentó que, después de la destrucción del templo en el año 70 d.C., contrariamente a la mitología, no hubo expulsiones de judíos de la región. Señaló correctamente que los romanos no tenían la costumbre de expulsar a las poblaciones de las tierras que conquistaron, porque eran muy inteligentes y necesitaban cultivadores y gente que trabajara en las zonas, porque las legiones romanas no lo hacían.

Y él (Shlomo) dijo que no sólo no hubo expulsiones, sino que, al mismo tiempo, hubo comunidades judías de 4 millones de personas, lo cual es una cantidad enorme para aquellos tiempos, en Persia, Egipto, Asia Menor y otros lugares, que se quedaron fuera.

Y luego argumentó que la idea de que la fe judía, después de la separación del movimiento de reforma conocido como cristianismo, no creía en el proselitismo es totalmente falsa: ellos lo hicieron (proselitismo), muchas personas se convirtieron; algunos se convirtieron a sí mismos, y los judíos ashkenazis en particular surgieron de las conversiones masivas al borde del Mar Caspio, entre los siglos VII y X, de los khazars, que finalmente adoptaron el hebreo y se convirtieron al judaísmo al por mayor, y estos son los judíos ashkenazis que poblaron Europa y los guetos de Europa, y que sufrieron a causa del Holocausto y de todo eso.

Estas son las personas que descienden de los kázaros, así que él (Shlomo) dijo que ellos en particular, que formaban el grueso del movimiento sionista, no tenían absolutamente ninguna conexión con las tierras árabes en absoluto. Luego fue aún más lejos y dijo: si Palestina no es la única patria ancestral de los judíos, ¿qué pasó con todos los judíos de estos países? Y aquí viene con una explicación devastadora: dice que en su mayoría se convirtieron al islam, se convirtieron al islam, la mayoría de ellos, no todos, como muchas otras personas lo hicieron en esa región en ese momento.

Y dice que los palestinos a los que hemos estado expulsando y oprimiendo son los descendientes directos de los judíos que solían vivir, en realidad, viven en esta tierra. Es un libro notable, y ha creado un gran debate, y el debate, dice, no está en Israel. Y es interesante esto: la mayoría de los historiadores israelíes aceptan que esto es correcto, pero dicen que su respuesta a la ciencia es la siguiente: bueno, ya sabes, cada nación crea su propia mitología, así que, ¿cuál es el gran problema? Pero ustedes saben que esto también es cierto, de hecho, pero esta mitología es muy potente, y muy poderosa porque esta cosa que se desata todavía está en marcha.

Quiero decir, a nadie le importaría la mitología si todo se hubiera resuelto y se hubiera llegado a algún acuerdo, pero como no se ha logrado, se convierte en una fuerza muy perturbadora. Y el propio Shlomo Sand no es en absoluto una figura radical. Dice: No soy un sionista duro, pero creo en Israel, excepto que creo que todos los ciudadanos deben tener los mismos derechos y no se puede decir a los palestinos: “No vuelvas a las tierras que te fueron arrebatadas”, mientras sigas diciéndole a los judíos, dondequiera que estén en cualquier parte del mundo: “puedes volver cuando quieras”. Y dijo que por eso escribió el libro: para luchar por la igualdad. Y los grandes ataques al libro han venido de la diáspora. Quiero decir que el New York Times hizo una gran, gran revisión de la misma, lo que creó una gran controversia. Y en Francia y en Gran Bretaña no hubo ninguna controversia en absoluto, en general se aceptó que lo que él argumentaba era cierto. Quiero decir que todos los historiadores que revisaron el libro dijeron que es exacto, ya sabes, no puedes sacarlo de la historia, porque aceptamos esto. Pero la diáspora se enfadó porque esto ya se había dicho, a lo que Sand respondió de forma muy contundente: “Bueno, si estás tan ansioso por decir que estoy equivocado y que lo que estoy haciendo es dañar a Israel, ¿por qué no pones tu dinero donde está tu boca, dejas la diáspora y vienes a instalarte en Israel?”.

Él dijo: “Si te gusta tanto el campo, ¿por qué no vienes a vivir aquí?, nosotros vivimos aquí y sabemos cómo vivimos”. Y él dijo que: “La forma en que vivimos no es buena, ni para nosotros ni para los no judíos de esa parte del mundo, y por eso he escrito mi libro”.

Ahora bien, es un tipo muy valiente, por cierto, no es el único: muchos historiadores israelíes han escrito libros de este tipo, pero ¿tienen algún impacto en los gobernantes del mundo o en los gobernantes de Israel?

Y aquí creo que la respuesta es no.

Y una de las cosas interesantes que Shlomo Sand cita en su libro es una declaración de David ben Gurion, uno de los padres fundadores de Israel, en 1918, donde Ben Gurion escribe: “Sabes, la gente pregunta qué pasó con los judíos que vivían en esta región. Eran leales a la tierra y para permanecer en ella, dice, la mayoría de los judíos se convirtieron en musulmanes”. Así que él lo sabía, y ellos lo sabían, los líderes de Israel, que esta mitología que se estaba creando sobre la base de citas del Antiguo Testamento era en gran parte mitología, no se basaba en ninguna realidad histórica en absoluto.

Así que aquí tenemos un ejemplo de cómo se abusa de la historia, pero al mismo tiempo el abuso desencadena un debate enorme y muy creativo, pero, por supuesto, los debates por sí solos y los libros, incluso los tan fuertes y poderosos como el escrito por este historiador israelí, no influencian las mentes de los políticos o gobernantes porque, en última instancia, no gobiernan sobre la base de los mitos. Los mitos son mantener a la gente en línea, ellos gobiernan por otras razones: para mantenerse en el poder, para mantener el control de la sociedad tal como es, y esto no sólo se aplica a Israel, se aplica a la mayoría de los gobernantes de diferentes partes del mundo, del mundo de hoy.

…”

[1] Tariq Ali es un escritor, periodista, historiador, cineasta, activista político e intelectual británico paquistaní. Es miembro del comité editorial de New Left Review y Sin Permiso, y contribuye con The Guardian, CounterPunch y London Review of Books. Es profesor de EPP en el Exeter College de Oxford.

Es autor de varios libros, entre ellos, Pakistán: Military Rule or People’s Power (1970), Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State (1983), Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity (2002), Bush in Babylon (2003), Conversations with Edward Said (2005), Pirates Of The Caribbean: Axis Of Hope (2006), A Banker for All Seasons (2007), The Duel (2008), The Obama Syndrome (2010) y The Extreme Centre: A Warning (2015).

thanks to: Redazione italiana di Pressenza

Longing for Palestine: Art of Resistance. Palestinians fight back with graffiti, and rap

Water shortages, movement restrictions, and the constant presence of the Israeli military – this is what life looks like for millions of Palestinians living in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. With no end in sight to the decades-long conflict, protests and clashes continue. RTD travels to the occupied territories to meet people of the Palestinian resistance, from members of the Tamimi family to activists expressing their anger and pain through art.

thanks to: RT

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Norman Finkelstein on Israel’s ‘Murderous Assault on Nonviolent Protesters’ in Gaza

thanks to: the Real News

Sicilians protest Giro d’Italia “stained with blood” of Palestinians

A protest by 200 activists delayed the start of the fourth stage of the Giro d’Italia in the Sicilian city of Catania on Tuesday.

The activists had planned to shut the prestigious cycling race down altogether to protest how it had been launched in Israel last week, but they were confronted and kettled by riot police, as the video above shows.

As members of the Israeli government-backed Israeli team went past, protesters threw out flyers and carried banners with slogans including, “Israel kills, Italy is an accomplice.”

“We made everyone hear our dissent against the exploitation of sport by a state that has for decades practiced apartheid against the Palestinians and which does not respect UN resolutions regarding occupied territories,” protest organizers said, according to an early version of a report from the newspaper La Sicilia.

“There were moments of tension with police,” who used their batons against demonstrators, the newspaper reported.

“Stained with blood”

One activist, Simone di Stefano, told Catania Today that activists had gathered to send the message that “we don’t want this Giro d’Italia that is stained with blood of the Palestinian people.”

Last week, Renzo Ulivieri, the head of the Italian football managers association, posted on Facebook that he would not be watching the Giro this year.

“I could have remained indifferent, but I fear I would have been despised by the people I respect,” Ulivieri wrote. “Viva the Palestinian people, free in their land.”

At a recent meeting of the leftist movement Potere al Popolo (power to the people), Ulivieri elaborated that “the true sporting spirit calls for the unity of people and condemns discrimination and abusive occupation like Israel’s apartheid.”

The latest actions are part of a continuing campaign by Palestinians and their supporters against Israel’s use of the Giro d’Italia to glamorize itself and distract attention from its abuses.

The human rights group Al-Haq noted that 4 May, the day the race started in Jerusalem, coincided with the sixth Friday of protests as part of the Great March of Return in Gaza.

On that day, Israeli occupation forces “injured 195 Palestinian protesters, paramedics, medical staff and journalists, in a demonstration of excessive use of force, including lethal force, against protected civilians,” according to Al-Haq.

Since the protests began, Israeli snipers with shoot-to-kill-and-maim orders have killed 50 Palestinians in Gaza, including 40 unarmed protesters, and have injured thousands more.

Gaza cyclist disabled by Israeli snipers

A particularly pernicious aspect of the Israeli policy – especially in the context of the Giro d’Italia’s purported celebration of athleticism – is “Israel’s deliberate ‘shoot-to-disable’ practice, targeting protected persons in the Gaza Strip with intention to maim and at times permanently disable Palestinians by targeting specific body parts, including the lower limbs,” Al-Haq stated.

“One of the injured protesters who required amputation is Alaa al-Dali, 21, a Palestinian cyclist who was shot by an Israeli sniper with a live bullet under his right knee on 30 March 2018, while he was standing some 200 metres away from the fence,” the human rights group stated.

Al-Dali was training for the 2018 Asian Games for months before he was shot.

“I knew the moment I was shot and fell to the ground, I knew that I would never be able to ride a bicycle again in my life,” he told Middle East Eye.

Al-Haq noted that in the months leading up to the Giro’s kickoff, the first time the race has started outside Europe, “Israel continued to unlawfully alter the status of Jerusalem, introducing legislation to alter the demography of Jerusalem, by targeting Palestinian residency rights and introducing bills to unlawfully incorporate settlement blocs into Israel’s Jerusalem municipality.”

“Giro d’Italia’s choice of location, along with its partners, sponsors and participating teams and individuals, is an indication of its support for Israel’s occupation and violations against Palestinians, including in East Jerusalem,” Al-Haq stated.

Sorgente: Sicilians protest Giro d’Italia “stained with blood” of Palestinians

15 Palestinians shot dead as Gazans hold mass rallies

Israeli military forces have shot and killed 15 Palestinians during massive anti-Israeli rallies staged by thousands along Gaza-Israel borders.

Palestinian medical officials say at least 15 Palestinians have lost their lives and more than a thousand others sustained injuries when Israeli military forces opened fire on thousands of protesters, who have flocked to a sit-in near the border fence between the Gaza Strip and occupied Palestinian territories.

Spokesman for the Gaza Ministry of Health, Ashraf al-Qidra, said three were fatally shot east of the southern Gaza Strip city of Khan Yunis, Jabalia, located 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) north of Gaza City as well as the border town of Rafah.

He identified the victims as 27-year-old Omar Wahid Abu Samour, Mohammed Kamal Al-Najjar, 25, and 38-year-old Mahmoud Muammar.

The fourth was Mohammed Abu Omar, 22, who was shot and killed east of Shuja’iyya neighborhood of Gaza City.

Ahmed Oudeh, 19, 33-year-old Jihad Farina and Mahmoud Sa’di Rahmi were all killed east of Gaza City as well.

A 22-year-old Palestinian man, identified as Ibrahim Abu Sha’ar, was also shot dead east of Rafah.

Abdel Fattah Bahjat Abdelnee, 18, and 42-year-old Abdul Qader Mardhi al-Hawajri also lost their lives in Israeli attacks shortly afterwards.

Six more Palestinian protesters were also killed in the Israeli assaults.

Al-Qidra added that nearly 1,500 protesters were also injured during the rally.

Israeli drone fires teargas on protesters

http://presstv.com/Default/embedattached/596310

An Israeli drone was filmed firing several rounds of teargas on the protesters near the Gaza border. An AFP correspondent said several people were injured by the containers, which fell from a height of between 10 and 20 meters.

Amnesty International slams Israel’s land expropriation policies

Meanwhile, human rights organization Amnesty International has condemned the Tel Aviv regime’s policies of land confiscation and dispossession, calling on Israeli authorities to stop them.

The Britain-based organization, in a post published on its official Twitter page on Friday, stated Israel’s policies of land theft exacerbate the sufferings of the Palestinian nation, and deprive them of their basic rights.

A picture taken on March 30, 2018 shows Palestinians taking part in a tent city protest erected along the border with Israel east of Gaza City in the Gaza strip to commemorate Land Day. (Photo by AFP)

We won’t concede ‘a single inch of Palestine’

Later in the day, Hamas political bureau chief Ismail Haniyeh arrived at the “return camps” along the eastern Gaza border and spoke to protesters.

In a statement broadcast on Palestinian television, Haniyeh said, “We welcome the Palestinian people everywhere, who have defeated the enemy leaders’ gamble that the old die and the young forget. Here are the young people, the grandparents and the grandchildren.”

“We will not concede a single inch of the land of Palestine and do not recognize the Israeli entity. We promise Trump and all those who stand by his business and his plot that we are not giving up on Jerusalem al-Quds, and there is no solution but for the right of return,” Haniyeh added.

The Palestinian rally, dubbed the “Great March of Return,” will last until May 15, which coincides with the 70th anniversary of Nakba Day (Day of Catastrophe) on which Israel was created.

Every year on May 15, Palestinians all over the world hold demonstrations to commemorate Nakba Day, which marks the anniversary of the forcible eviction of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians from their homeland by Israelis in 1948.

More than 760,000 Palestinians – now estimated to number nearly five million with their descendants – were driven out of their homes on May 14, 1948.

Since 1948, the Israeli regime has denied Palestinian refugees the right to return, despite United Nations resolutions and international law that upholds people’s right to return to their homelands.

Israeli soldiers take aim as they lie prone over an earth barrier along the border with the Gaza strip in the southern Israeli kibbutz of Nahal Oz on March 30, 2018, as Palestinians demonstrate on the other side commemorating Land Day. (Photo by AFP)

This year’s Land Day demonstrations appear especially combustible as Palestinian anger is already high over US President Donald Trump’s decision in December to recognize Jerusalem al-Quds as Israel’s “capital.”

Israel occupied the West Bank, East Jerusalem al-Quds and parts of Syria’s Golan Heights during the Six-Day War in 1967. It later annexed East Jerusalem al-Quds in a move not recognized by the international community.

Israel is required to withdraw from all the territories seized in the war under the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, adopted months after the Six-Day War, in November 1967, but the Tel Aviv regime has been in non-compliance of that piece of international law ever since.

Sorgente: PressTV-15 Palestinians shot dead as Gazans hold mass rallies

Palestine’s ‘Prayer for Rain’: How Israel Uses Water as a Weapon of War

By Ramzy Baroud

Entire communities in the West Bank either have no access to water or have had their water supply reduced almost by half.

This alarming development has been taking place for weeks, since Israel’s national water company, “Mekorot”, decided to cut off – or significantly reduce – its water supply to Jenin, Salfit and many villages around Nablus, among other regions.

Israel has been ‘waging a water war’ against Palestinians, according to Palestinian Authority Prime Minister, Rami Hamdallah. The irony is that the water provided by “Mekorot” is actually Palestinian water, usurped from West Bank aquifers. While Israelis, including illegal West Bank settlements, use the vast majority of it, Palestinians are sold their own water back at high prices.

By shutting down the water supply at a time that Israeli officials are planning to export essentially Palestinian water, Israel is once more utilizing water as a form of collective punishment.

This is hardly new. I still remember the trepidation in my parents’ voices whenever they feared that the water supply was reaching a dangerously low level. It was almost a daily discussion at home.

Whenever clashes erupted between stone-throwing children and Israeli occupation forces on the outskirts of the refugee camp, we always, instinctively, rushed to fill up the few water buckets and bottles we had scattered around the house.

This was the case during the First Palestinian Intifada, or uprising, which erupted in 1987 throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territories.

Whenever clashes erupted, one of the initial actions carried out by the Israeli Civil Administration – a less ominous title for the offices of the Israeli occupation army – was to collectively punish the whole population of whichever refugee camp rose up in rebellion.

The steps the Israeli army took became redundant, although grew more vengeful with time: a strict military curfew (meaning the shutting down of the entire area and the confinement of all residents to their homes under the threat of death); cutting off electricity and shutting off the water supply.

Of course, these steps were taken only in the first stage of the collective punishment, which lasted for days or weeks, sometimes even months, pushing some refugee camps to the point of starvation.

Since there was little the refugees could do to challenge the authority of a well-equipped army, they invested whatever meager resources or time that they had to plot their survival.

Thus, the obsession over water, because once the water supply ran out, there was nothing to be done; except, of course, that of Salat Al-Istisqa or the ‘Prayer for Rain’ that devout Muslims invoke during times of drought. The elders in the camp insist that it actually works, and reference miraculous stories from the past where this special prayer even yielded results during summer time, when rain was least expected.

In fact, more Palestinians have been conducting their prayer for rain since 1967 than at any other time. In that year, almost exactly 49 years ago, Israel occupied the two remaining regions of historic Palestine: the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip. And throughout those years, Israel has resorted to a protracted policy of collective punishment: limiting all kinds of freedom, and using the denial of water as a weapon.

Indeed, water was used as a weapon to subdue rebelling Palestinians during many stages of their struggle. In fact, this history goes back to the war of 1948, when Zionist militias cut off the water supply to scores of Palestinian villages around Jerusalem to facilitate the ethnic cleansing of that region.

During the Nakba (or Catastrophe) of 1948, whenever a village or a town was conquered, the militias would immediately demolish its wells to prevent the inhabitants from returning. Illegal Jewish settlers still utilize this tactic to this day.

The Israeli military, too, continued to use this strategy, most notably in the first and second uprisings. In the Second Intifada, Israeli airplanes shelled the water supply of whichever village or refugee camp they planned to invade and subdue. During the Jenin Refugee Camp invasion and massacre of April 2002, the water supply for the camp was blown up before the soldiers moved into the camp from all directions, killing and wounding hundreds.

Gaza remains the most extreme example of water-related collective punishment, to date. Not only the water supply is targeted during war but electric generators, which are used to purify the water, are often blown up from the sky. And until the decade-long siege is over, there is little hope to permanently repair either of these.

It is now common knowledge that the Oslo Accord was a political disaster for Palestinians; less known, however, is how Oslo facilitated the ongoing inequality under way in the West Bank.

The so-called Oslo II, or the Israel-Palestinian Interim Agreement of 1995, made Gaza a separate water sector from the West Bank, thus leaving the Strip to develop its own water sources located within its boundaries. With the siege and recurring wars, Gaza’s aquifers produce anywhere between 5-10 percent of ‘drinking-quality water.’ According to ANERA, 90 percent of Gaza water (is) unfit for human consumption.’

Therefore, most Gazans subsist on sewage-polluted or untreated water. But the West Bank should – at least theoretically – enjoy greater access to water than Gaza. Yet, this is hardly the case.

The West Bank’s largest water source is the Mountain Aquifer, which includes several basins: Northern, Western and Eastern. West Bankers’ access to these basins is restricted by Israel, which also denies them access to water from the Jordan River and to the Coastal Aquifer. Oslo II, which was meant to be a temporary arrangement until a final status negotiations are concluded, enshrined the existing inequality by giving Palestinians less than a fifth of the amount of water enjoyed by Israel.

But even that prejudicial agreement has not been respected, partly because a joint committee to resolve water issues gives Israel veto power over Palestinian demands. Practically, this translates to 100 percent of all Israeli water projects receiving the go-ahead, including those in the illegal settlements, while nearly half of Palestinian needs are rejected.

Presently, according to Oxfam, Israel controls 80 percent of Palestinian water resources. “The 520,000 Israeli settlers use approximately six times the amount of water more than that used by the 2.6 million Palestinians in the West Bank.”

The reasoning behind this is quite straightforward, according to Stephanie Westbrook, writing in Israel’s +972 Magazine. “The company pumping the water out is ‘Mekorot’, Israel’s national water company. ‘Mekorot’ not only operates more than 40 wells in the West Bank, appropriating Palestinian water resources, Israel also effectively controls the valves, deciding who gets water and who does not.”

“It should be no surprise that priority is given to Israeli settlements while service to Palestinian towns is routinely reduced or cut off,” as is the case at the moment.

The unfairness of it all is inescapable. Yet, for nearly five decades, Israel has been employing the same policies against Palestinians without much censure or meaningful action from the international community.

With current summer temperature in the West Bank reaching 38 degrees Celsius, entire families are reportedly living on as little as 2-3 liters per capita, per day. The problem is reaching catastrophic proportions. This time, the tragedy cannot be brushed aside, for the lives and well-being of entire communities are at stake.

– Dr Ramzy Baroud has been writing about the Middle East for over 20 years. He is an internationally-syndicated columnist, a media consultant, an author of several books and the founder of PalestineChronicle.com. His books include “Searching Jenin”, “The Second Palestinian Intifada” and his latest “My Father Was a Freedom Fighter: Gaza’s Untold Story”. His website iswww.ramzybaroud.net.

Sorgente: Palestine’s ‘Prayer for Rain’: How Israel Uses Water as a Weapon of War – Politics for the People | Politics for the People

Esecuzione dei due Palestinesi a Qalandiya: avevano sbagliato strada e non rappresentavano una minaccia

377628CIsraele si conferma ancora una volta come una realtà criminale e violatrice di ogni diritto umano.

I due giovani – fratello e sorella – uccisi a sangue freddo mercoledì mattina al check-point di Qalandiya, e presentati al mondo dalla propaganda israeliana come “attentatori”, in realtà erano due cittadini che si sono trovati per sbaglio a percorrere la carreggiata per autoveicoli, e non quella per i pedoni, e che non hanno capito gli ordini dei militari. La confusione è stata fatale, poiché i robo-killer israeliani li hanno crivellati di colpi.

Lei lascia due bimbi di 6 e 4 anni ed era incinta di 5 mesi.
Il fratello, di 16 anni, ha tentato di portarla via da lì, ma è stato troppo tardi.

Nessuno dei due rappresentava una minaccia.

Testimoni hanno raccontato all’agenzia Ma’an che Maram Salih Hassan Abu Ismail, 23 anni, incinta di cinque mesi e madre di due bimbi, e suo fratello Ibrahim, di 16 anni, si stavano dirigendo verso Gerusalemme, quando hanno imboccato l’ingresso per i veicoli e non quello per i pedoni, dentro il check-point di Qalandiya, vicino a Ramallah.

I due sembrano non fossero in grado di comprendere ciò che i soldati israeliani stavano gridando in ebraico e si sono fermati. I testimoni hanno affermato che Ibrahim sembra avesse tentato di prendere la sorella per un braccio e allontanarla di lì, quando i soldati hanno aperto il fuoco, colpendola. Maram è caduta a terra e quando Ibrahim ha tentato di aiutarla, è stato colpito a sua volta.

Un autista di autobus palestinese, Muhammad Ahmad, ha detto a Ma’an che il soldato che ha sparato a Maram si trovava dietro a un blocco di cemento a 20 metri di distanza da lei, e che né lei né il fratello rappresentavano una minaccia.

Un altro testimone dell’attacco contro i due Palestinesi ha dichiarato a Ma’an che i militari israeliani si sono avvicinati ai due dopo che già erano a terra e hanno di nuovo aperto il fuoco per assicurarsi che fossero morti.

Il testimone ipotizza che i soldati abbiano piazzato i coltelli sulla scena, così che la fotografia potesse essere diffusa dalla polizia israeliana a giustificazione del duplice omicidio.

Le testimonianze raccolte, infatti, contraddicono la versione della polizia israeliana.

Maram aveva ottenuto, per la prima volta, un permesso dalle autorità israeliana per entrare a Gerusalemme. Anche questo spiega la sua confusione sul percorso da prendere nel check-point.

 

  thanks to: Agenzia stampa Infopal

Palestinese vince premio per l’insegnamento da un milione di dollari.

hanan

L’immagine mostra Hanan Al Hroub che insegna ai bambini rifugiati

By Sean Coughlan, 13 marzo 2016

 

Un’ insegnante palestinese ha vinto un milione di dollari in un premio internazionale per l’insegnamento. Il riconoscimento è stato annunciato da Papa Francesco in un video.

Hanan Al Hroub è cresciuta in un campo per rifugiati palestinesi e adesso insegna a questi stessi rifugiati. È specializzata nel supporto ai bambini traumatizzati dalla violenza.

La vincitrice è stata annunciata durante una cerimonia di premiazione a Dubai, con un videomessaggio di congratulazioni mandato dal principe William.

Il Papa Francesco ha mandato a sua volta un messaggio in cui ha sostenuto che questi insegnanti sono ” i costruttori della pace e dell’unità”.

La signora Al Hroub ha poi detto agli spettatori che “gli insegnanti sono capaci di cambiare il mondo.” e il principe William ha citato “l’incredibile responsabilità” degli insegnanti.

C’è stato anche un finalista britannico, Colin Hegarty, un professore di matematica da Londra che ha creato un sito internet interattivo con lezioni di matematica online.

I finalisti del Global Teacher Prize comprendono insegnanti da India, Kenya, Finlandia e dagli Stati Uniti.

Creato dalla Varkey Foundation, la sezione filantropica della società scolastica internazionale GEM, il premio e la cerimonia in stile Oscar hanno lo scopo di innalzare lo status della professione educativa.
Il pubblico dell’evento includeva anche stars di Hollywood come Salma Hayek e Matthew McConaughey e personalità politiche, tra le quali l’ex primo ministro britannico, Tony Blair, ed il vicepresidente degli Emirati Arabi, lo sceicco Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum.

I primi 10 finalisti sono stati invitati sul palco da un videomessaggio del fisico Stephen Hawking ed hanno ricevuto le congratulazioni in un videomessaggio dal vicepresidente statunitense, Joe Biden, e dall’ex presidente americano, Bill Clinton.

Gli altri finalisti erano:

•Maarit Rossi, dalla Finlandia, che ha sviluppato un proprio metodo per insegnare la matematica. La Finlandia ha alcuni dei migliori risultati mondiali nei test internazionali ma le scolaresche della signora Rossi ricevono risultati di alto livello persino se comparati agli standard finlandesi.

•Aqeela Asifi, arrivata in Pakistan come rifugiata dall’Afghanistan. Insegna alle bambine rifugiate nelle scuole che ha essa stessa creato.

•Ayub Mohamud, insegnante di economia dal Kenya, è arrivato in finale grazie ad un progetto ideato per evitare l’estremismo violento e la radicalizzazione.

•Robin Chaurasiya da Mumbai, in India. Ha fondato un’organizzazione per educare e supportare le adolescenti dei quartieri a luci rosse della città.

•Richard Johnson, un insegnante di scienze da Perth in Australia, che ha ideato un laboratorio di scienze per bambini delle scuole elementari.

•Michael Soskil dalla Pennsylvania, negli Stati Uniti, già vincitore del Premio Presidenziale per l’Eccellenza nell’Insegnamento della Matematica e delle Scienze. È stato in grado di motivare i suoi alunni mettendoli in collegamento con progetti provenienti da tutto il mondo.

•Kazuya Takahashi, dal Giappone, ha sviluppato sistemi innovativi per insegnare le scienze ed incoraggiare alla cittadinanza globale.

•Joe Fatheree, dall’Illinois negli Stati Uniti, è stato un pioniere nell’insegnare progetti attraverso l’uso di stampanti tridimensionali, della tecnologia dei droni e usando videogiochi come Minecraft.

Sunny Varkey, fondatore della Varkey Foundation, ha spiegato alla conferenza educativa internazionale che il premio è stato ideato per aumentare il riconoscimento pubblico dell’importanza della figura dell’insegnante.

“La mia speranza è che i bambini di tutto il mondo guardino la cerimonia di domenica e pensino a ciò che gli insegnanti fanno per loro.” ha detto Varkey.

thanks to: trad. L. Pal – Invictapalestina

BBC

164 palestinesi uccisi dall’inizio dell’Intifada di Gerusalemme, tra cui 39 bambini

L’”Assemblea nazionale delle famiglie dei martiri della Palestina “, che fa parte dell’Organizzazione per la Liberazione della Palestina, ha dichiarato che il numero dei minorenni uccisi dallo scoppio dell’Intifada di Gerusalemme, nello scorso ottobre, è salito a 39, tra cui 16 bambine e ragazze.

In un comunicato pubblicato domenica, l’organizzazione ha riferito che il numero dei palestinesi uccisi nell’Intifada è salito a 164, con l’uccisione, sabato sera, del 17enne Muhammad NabilHalabiyya, della cittadina di AbuDis, e con quella di Ruqayya ‘Aid Abu ‘Aid, 13 anni, originaria della cittadina di Yatta, a sud di Hebron , avvenuta lunedì nel villaggio di ‘Anata, vicino a Gerusalemme.

L’Assemblea sottolinea come la piccola Ruqayya‘Aid sia la terza in ordine di età fra i bambini uccisi nell’Intifada, dopo il piccolo Ramadan Thawabtah, di 3 mesi, della cittadina di BaitFajjar, e la piccola Rahaf Hassan, di 2 anni, di Gaza, uccisa con la mamma durante un bombardamento dell’aviazione israeliana.

( Fonte: Infopal.it )

Sorgente: 27-1-16_164palestinesi-uccisi