Controllare il messaggio, controllare il mondo: Dal Vietnam al Venezuela

Scott Patrick 12 febbraio 2019 Nel 2019, un colpo di stato sostenuto dagli Stati Uniti sta avendo luogo in America Latina contro il…

via Controllare il messaggio, controllare il mondo: Dal Vietnam al Venezuela — Notizie dal Mondo

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West Papua: The crackdown aftermath – finding a dignified solution

LAST MONDAY, Indonesian police arrested more than 1600 people in Jayapura, Papua. They were rallying in support of a coalition of groups representing West Papuans’ aspirations for independence.

The police stopped the protesters, who were heading to the local parliament, forced them to board military trucks, and took them to the Mobile Brigade compound.

The protesters were demonstrating their support for the United Liberation Movement of West Papua’s (ULMWP) bid to gain full membership in the grouping of Melanesian countries, the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG).

The ULMWP holds observer status in the group, which consists of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. Last year, Indonesia was granted associate membership.

To prevent further violent mistreatment of protesters, together with several Papuan councillors and church leaders, that day I [May 2] went to the Mobile Brigade’s compound to negotiate with the security forces to release the detainees peacefully.

Monday’s arrests were the largest in the West Papua independence movement’s history.

Why did thousands of people in Papua take to the streets to support ULMWP?

Public discontent in West Papua is a result of a complicated past. It is a product of historical manipulation and repression of the right to self-determination of West Papuans.

Over the past five decades, the Papuan people have not moved from their position in relation to Indonesia. They have struggled to make progress in their predicament as the oppressed people. They are marginalised, suffering from various forms of violence, and being pushed from their own land.

Solving the problem of West Papua in a dignified manner should involve not only Indonesian authorities but also Papuans and the international community. In that sense, ULMWP and the popular support for ULMWP within West Papua are part of the solution and should not be repressed.

The silenced truth
Ever since West Papua was transferred into the hands of Indonesia in the early 1960s from being a remote outpost of the Dutch, it has become the land of “mourning and grief”.

Gross human rights violations have been taking place in West Papua since Indonesia, backed by the United Nations, annexed the western half of the island of New Guinea in 1963. In 1969, Indonesia gained complete rule of West Papua via a sham referendum.

West Papuans have looked to their Melanesian brothers and sisters to assist them in seeking resolution of past abuses by the Indonesian government and to build a new Papua. But they are still confronted with many challenges.

Last September, countries in the Pacific Islands Forum, a grouping of 14 countries that includes Australia and New Zealand, agreed to send a fact-finding mission to investigate human rights violations in West Papua.

The Indonesian government refused to accept such a team. Indonesia’s co-ordinating minister for politics, law and human rights, Luhut Pandjaitan, instead held two focus group discussions at a luxury hotel in Jayapura for the so-called “settlement of human rights issues”.

But West Papua is a nation that grew up with and is shaped by experiences of living under Indonesia’s military operations. These cannot be solved simply with focus group discussions.

Sadar Operation (1962, 1965-67), Wisnumurti Operation (1963), Wibawa Operation (1969), Pamungkas Operation (1970-1971), military operations in Jayawijaya (1977-80), Sapu Bersih Operation (1979-82), and Tumpas Operation (1983-84) are only a few of a series of violent acts of oppression that have confronted ordinary Papuans.

Today, Indonesia’s militaristic approach in West Papua remains intact. This approach has resulted in a series of acts of intimidation and terror committed by security forces.

They are involved in land expropriation and natural resources extraction under the banner of development and investment, in the name of Papuan welfare.  

Diplomatic pressure from Indonesia
Following the increasing concern and solidarity from the Pacific region and support from the MSG for a resolution of West Papua’s problem, the Indonesian government is aggressively lobbying countries and political leaders in the Pacific.

Upon his return from a visit to PNG and Fiji last month, Pandjaitan boasted that Indonesia had the support of the two countries and could handle the MSG.

At the same time, he argued that foreigners should not interfere in matters of human rights in West Papua.

Meanwhile, environmental destruction and rampant militarism walk hand-in-hand in West Papua.

Papuans are continuously stigmatised as backward, ignorant and poor. This has become a pretext for what Indonesian authorities call “the acceleration and expansion of development”.

Pressed against waves of Indonesian migration, Papuans are not given any chance at all to develop themselves. They are a minority in their own land, not only in terms of number but also in terms of power.

Every protest and negotiation effort by indigenous people is met with brutal responses and security operations.  

Dignified resolution
In talking about West Papua, the Indonesian government often uses language that obscures past abuses. Papua’s relationship with the outside world is heavily controlled.

The Indonesian government makes it difficult for international journalists to cover Papua and bans international researchers from studying the region. Indonesia’s solutions for West Papua are based on shallow reflections and fear of the West Papuan people.

A genuine resolution for the West Papuan problem will only come from Indonesia’s willingness to listen to and stop oppression of West Papuans.

Indonesia should welcome the support from international communities, such as the MSG and the United Nations, as mediators in finding a resolution on West Papua.

Sorgente: Café Pacific – David Robie | Media freedom and transparency: West Papua: The crackdown aftermath – finding a dignified solution

Olio di palma: non si salva nessuno

Nessuno è al sicuro. Questa è la conclusione di un nuovo rapporto pubblicato dalla rete ambientalista indonesiana Eyes on the Forests, dimostrando come anche compagnie  di palma da olio certificate trattano olio proveniente dalla deforestazione illegale. Le piantagioni di olio di palma piantagione aperte illegalmente nelle delle aree protette continuano a rifornire i maggiori produttori. Nonostante gli impegni a fermare la deforestazione, le residue foreste dell’Indonesia, ormai sempre più piccole e sempre più preziose continuano ad essere convertite in piantagioni di palma da olio, e non le salva neppure lo status di area protetta.

La rapida crescita del consumo di olio di palma ha causato una massiccia deforestazione in Indonesia, in particolare nell’isola di Sumatra. Nel 2015, l’Indonesia e paesi vicini sono stati coperti da una cotre di fumo velenoso proveniente dagli incendi delle torbiere provenienti dalle piantagioni. Gli incendi hanno liberato in atmosfera 1,75 miliardi di tonnellate di CO2 equivalente, più di tutte le emissioni di combustibili fossili della Germania. Il fuoco viene usato per preparare il terreno delle piantagioni dopo la deforestazione.

Sorgente: Olio di palma: non si salva nessuno – Salva le Foreste

Sensazionale: l’Indonesia punisce i responsabili degli incendi forestali

Con una mossa senza precedenti, il governo indonesiano ha deciso di punire oltre venti imprese ritenute responsabili degli terribili incendi forestali che hanno ucciso 19 persone, un funzionario del governo ha detto Martedì. Le piantagioni, per la maggior finalizzate alla produzione di carta a Sumatra e Kalimantan, hanno avuto le loro licenze commerciali sospese. Le aziende comprendono BMH e SWI, che hanno concessioni in South Sumatra: la BMH è un fornitore di Asia Pulp & Paper (APP). BMH, SWI e APP hanno la stessa casa madre, il gruppo Sinar Mas. Le sospensioni dovrebbero essere revocate se, entro i prossimi due anni, le imprese mostreranno di aver compiuto significativi progressi nella prevenzione degli incendi.

 

Altre tre imprese sono state chiuse definitivamente dopo avere visto le loro licenze revocate, a causa del loro ruolo negli incendi che hanno soffocato l’intera regione del sud-est asiatico e che sono costati all’Indonesia $ 16 miliardi. Tra queste, Mega Alam Sentosa (MAS), un’altra impresa controllata dal gruppo Sinar Mas (di cui la APP fa parte).

E ‘la prima volta che il governo ha revocato le licenze aziendali su incendi boschivi, un evento annuale causata da debbio disboscamento.

Molte altre imprese hanno ricevuto un forte allarme e saranno tenute sotto stretta osservazione sotto stretto controllo. “Abbiamo sanzionato 23 aziende in totale, che vanno dalle sanzioni amministrative a revoca della licenza, mentre altri 33 sono ancora in osservazione, potrebbero avere le loro licenze revocate anche se saranno ritenute colpevoli” spiega il funzionario del ministero dell’ambiente Kemal Amas. Il ministero ha indagato su un in totale 276 imprese da quando gli incendi scoppiati nel mese di settembre. “Dobbiamo applicare la legge, in modo che questa catastrofe non si ripeta, dura da 18 anni ma nessuno ha ancora imparato la lezione”, ha aggiunto Amas.

Gli ambientalisti hanno accolto nuovo impegno del governo di punire le imprese. Il Forum indonesiano dell’Ambiente (Walhi) ha detto che era inaudito per il governo al ritiro delle licenze, dato che queste imprese sono sempre riuscite a evitare i processi. “Il ministro ha avuto il coraggio di bloccare non solo il funzionamento delle imprese, ma anche di perseguire i proprietari in una causa civile, questo è grande e questo è un passo molto importante”, ha commentato Kurniawan, di Walhi Riau. “In passato alcuni individui sono stati investigati, ma questa è la prima volta che le imprese responsabili perdono la licenza”.

Oltre mezzo milione di persone ha sofferto di infezioni respiratorie acute a causa del fumo degli incendi in Indonesia, ma anche nei paesi vicino come Singapore e in Malesia numerose persone si sono ammalate.

Sorgente: Sensazionale: l’Indonesia punisce i responsabili degli incendi forestali – Salva le Foreste

#Sulawesi ’s Testimony a Testament to History #Indonesia

 

Putu Oka, Hilmar Farid, Rusdy Mastura, Nasir, Nulaela and Gagarisman. (JG Photo/Lisa Siregar)

Putu Oka, Hilmar Farid, Rusdy Mastura, Nasir, Nulaela and Gagarisman. (JG Photo/Lisa Siregar)

The Indonesian 1965 tragedy, during which the Communist Party of Indonesia was effectively eliminated and countless people killed, leading to the downfall of then-President Sukarno, continues to impact Indonesian dialogue about the nation. The urgency to deal with these events is ever more pressing, and has started to capture the hearts and minds of the international community too.

Second- and third-generation Indonesians are working to try to recall what happened during what is arguably the darkest chapter of Indonesian history, depending on the person telling the story. The fact that massacres also happened in Sulawesi — where the collection of essays “Sulawesi Bersaksi” (“ Sulawesi Testifies”) focuses — is not yet widely known. This most recent work to focus on the communist purges launched on Thursday evening at the Goethe-Institut Jakarta.

The book launch is a part of the center’s Culture & Conflict Week, a series of curated events including discussions, film screenings and performances focused on the events of 1965.

For the contributing authors of “Sulawesi Bersaksi” (Alamsyah AK Lamasitudju, Gagarisman, Muhammad Abbas, Nurlaela AK Lamasitudju, Nasir and Nurhasanah), they consider their work an effort to fight against forgetting the past.

Writer and historian Hilmar Farid, who attended the launch, praised the book as a new and important addition to the historical works about the 1965 incident, as “Sulawesi Bersaksi” reveals the discrimination experienced by relatives of the 1965 victims — something textbooks often ignore.

“To keep remembering, we simply need to find out what happened to our family members in 1965,” Hilmar said. “If every single Indonesian did this, we would already be halfway through finding out the truth.”

Nasir, one of the book’s contributors, said he hoped the book would enlighten the younger generation. He noted that the pattern of violence in Sulawesi during the communist massacres was quite different to the way in which the killings unfolded in Java and Bali.

Religious leaders

Nasir said most land owners in Java, Sumatra and Bali were religious leaders — mostly from the Nahdlatul Ulama— the largest traditionalist Sunni Islam group in Indonesia. They were motivated to overturn the Communist Party and influenced their followers to support their purge campaigns, according to Nurlaela.

“In some cases, these people were the first to attack those assumed to be involved with the Communist Party,” Nurlaela said.

Meanwhile, the situation for Muslims in Sulawesi looked quite different as the number of NU followers was smaller than in other regions.

The people would stick together, and the massacres only happened after the local military unit was given the direct instruction to kill.Sulawesi Bersaksi.JPG

This is also one of the reasons why reconciliation was faster in Sulawesi because the people could unite against a common enemy — the military.

Hilmar also pointed out that the Communist Party had bigger bases in Sumatra, Java and Bali than Sulawesi. However, he said, without extensive research, Indonesians will never be fully able to acknowledge of overcome the tragedy.

“Sudomo [military leader, former minister] said 1 million, Sarwo Edhie [military leader, father of first lady Ani Yudhoyono] said 3 million,” Hilmar said. “The only way to determine the exact number of those killed is through thorough research.”

“Sulawesi Testifies” was published independently by Lembaga Kreatifitas Kemanusiaan (LKK) and initiated by Indonesia’s acclaimed writer Putu Oka Sukanta.

Putu was a political prisoner himself, accused of being a member of a forbidden organization, the People’s Art Guild (LEKRA) — affiliated with the Communist Party. Since Putu was released from jail, he has written numerous essays and books, and also produced many documentary films about the 1965 tragedy.

To be able to publish “Sulawesi Bersaksi,” Putu said LKK worked with non-government organizations to collect testimonials from former New Order regime political prisoners in the Sulawesi cities of Palu, Manado, Bau-Bau, Kendari and Makassar as well as the province of Wajo.

Reconciliation

Nurlaela said she hopes this book will help the reconciliation process for families of the victims and the nation as a whole.

“You need to have the courage to admit that you too are a victim, because that way you can recognize your rights,” she said. “Even if you made it through the massacre, or even if you were not even directly involved, we are in the end all victims of the state’s lie.”

She hoped the book would spark confessions from other people who have read it.

Contributor Gagarisman, whose father was murdered during the massacre, said he hoped that with time he would be granted a formal acknowledgement and apology from the government and said he wanted his father’s corpse returned to be buried in Muslim tradition.

Rusdy Mastura, the mayor of Palu in Sulawesi — a place featured in “Sulawesi Bersaksi,”— shared the stage with the contributors at the book launch.

Instructed as a boy scout by the military to watch the prisoners during the killings, Rusdy publicly apologized to the 1965 victims last year, offering surviving family members free health care through the Jamkesda health insurance scheme and scholarships.

He has not received any negative reaction to his comments.

“I think the younger generation in our military today didn’t inherit this hatred towards communism,” he said. “But even so, the massacre is still a dark part of our history and it must be resolved.”

“Sulawesi Bersaksi” is available in Indonesian and can be bought at LKK for Rp 50,000 ($4.35).

Lembaga Kreatifitas Kemanusiaan
Tel. 021 489 1983
E-mail: poskanta@indosat.net.id

Sulawesi’s Testimony a Testament to History – The Jakarta Globe.

Paura nel Papua Occidentale per un programma di “sviluppo” dell’esercito indonesiano

I leader papuasi hanno espresso la loro preoccupazione verso un progetto che prevede la costruzione, da parte di un migliaio di soldati indonesiani, di più di 1.500 chilometri di nuove strade nei prossimi due anni. Il piano mira ad accelerare lo “sviluppo” nel Papua Occidentale.

Il governo sostiene che l’instabilità della regione è causata dalla mancanza di “sviluppo”, mentre i Papuasi attribuiscono la colpa dei loro problemi alla violazione dei loro diritti umani e politici. Survival International e molti Papuasi temono che l’afflusso di soldati non porterà alla regione né sviluppo né pace.

“I Papuasi Occidentali non hanno bisogno di grandi strade” ha dichiarato a Survival il Reverendo Socratez Yoman, un leader papuaso, “ma di una vita migliore sulla propria terra, senza intimidazioni, terrore, abusi e uccisioni”.

Secondo un altro leader, Markus Haluk, le strade aprirebbero le foreste al disboscamento illegale, in gran parte probabilmente per mano degli stessi militari.

La presenza dell’esercito nel Papua Occidentale è quasi sempre accompagnata da violazioni dei diritti umani, tra cui uccisioni, detenzioni arbitrarie, stupri e torture.

Il cosiddetto “sviluppo” ha già inflitto enormi danni al popolo papuaso. Infatti, nonostante ospiti la miniera d’oro più grande del mondo, il Papua Occidentale rimane la regione più povera dell’Indonesia; si ritiene che qui i tassi di HIV/AIDS siano 20 volte più alti che nel resto del paese. Molti dei casi di HIV/AIDS risalgono all’industria del sesso, che ha accompagnato l’arrivo dei lavoratori impiegati nelle industrie della pesca, del legname e delle miniere.

Molti Papuasi credono che i militari abbiano interesse a introdurre l’HIV/AIDS nel Papua Occidentale e la considerano come un tentativo di fare pulizia etnica. In alcune aree i militari hanno fornito alcool e prostitute per corrompere i leader tribali e ottenere l’accesso alla loro terra e alle loro risorse naturali. La malattia sta devastando alcune tribù. L’incidenza è particolarmente alta in aree in cui il cosiddetto “sviluppo” ha già preso piede, come nei pressi della miniera anglo-statunitense Grasberg.

Survival International chiede al governo indonesiano di mettere fine alle violazioni dei diritti umani nel Papua Occidentale e di avviare colloqui significativi con i Papuasi, così che questi possano decidere autonomamente del proprio stile di vita, delle loro priorità di sviluppo e del proprio futuro.

Per maggiori informazioni sull’impatto dello “sviluppo” imposto ai popoli indigeni leggi il rapporto di Survival Il progresso può uccidere.

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